Under the Knife

Medieval surgery was, by all accounts, painful for the patient. One of the newest Vatican manuscripts online contains Gerard of Cremona's Latin translation of the Arabic handbook of surgery by the famed Andalusian doctor Abulcasis or Albucasis (see Wikipedia). Consider these instruments:

I'm not going to tell you what they were used for. But anesthetic procedures were crude, so you felt the cut.

This manuscript of the 13th or 14th century is among more than 30 extant according to Monica H Green's count in 2011.

It seems the book was read by non-doctors too, as indicated by the luxury colors in this copy. She adds: "Whereas other surgical texts circulated quite widely in western Europe, up until the fifteenth century Albucasis's work was copied only in Italy and, to a lesser extent, in southern France." See too an earlier article online by David Trotter on the Latin mss.

In the past week, 112 manuscripts came online. The Vatican Library's newsletter adds some good news, indicating the digitization program remains open-ended.

The Japan-based company which is the main funder of the project, NTT Data, previously told media its support was limited to 3,000 manuscripts up to 2019, but the December newsletter says Katsuichi Sonoda, an NTT Data VP, offered November 30 to continue the collaboration with the Library “indefinitely”. Sounds great!
  1. Ross.47,
  2. Ross.60,
  3. Ross.67 (Upgraded to HQ),
  4. Ross.71,
  5. Ross.83,
  6. Ross.86.pt.2,
  7. Ross.102 (Upgraded to HQ),
  8. Ross.104,
  9. Ross.132 (Upgraded to HQ),
  10. Ross.133,
  11. Ross.134,
  12. Ross.139 (Upgraded to HQ),
  13. Ross.148 (Upgraded to HQ),
  14. Ross.166,
  15. Ross.169,
  16. Ross.200,
  17. Ross.205 (Upgraded to HQ),
  18. Ross.221,
  19. Ross.229 (Upgraded to HQ),
  20. Ross.233,
  21. Ross.250 (Upgraded to HQ),
  22. Ross.256,
  23. Ross.267,
  24. Ross.270 (Upgraded to HQ),
  25. Ross.271 (Upgraded to HQ),
  26. Vat.lat.2389,
  27. Vat.lat.2392, eTK incipit: Gerard of Cremona translations of Arabic medical works, and the De cibariis attributed to Petrus de Musanda
  28. Vat.lat.2403, eTK incipit: Desideranti tibi scribi a me mysteria lapidum omnium
  29. Vat.lat.2408,
  30. Vat.lat.2431,
  31. Vat.lat.2440,
  32. Vat.lat.2445.pt.2,
  33. Vat.lat.2445.pt.3,
  34. Vat.lat.2465, Jacobus de Forlivio, on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates; see Jordanus
  35. Vat.lat.2478,
  36. Vat.lat.3219 (Upgraded to HQ),
  37. Vat.lat.3367,
  38. Vat.lat.3369,
  39. Vat.lat.4020,
  40. Vat.lat.4021,
  41. Vat.lat.4022,
  42. Vat.lat.4083, eTK incipit: Interrogatio nobilis viri domini Uberti marchionis; (Gerard of Cremona)
  43. Vat.lat.4098 (Upgraded to HQ),
  44. Vat.lat.4112.pt.2,
  45. Vat.lat.4251,
  46. Vat.lat.4276,
  47. Vat.lat.4347 (Upgraded to HQ),
  48. Vat.lat.4368,
  49. Vat.lat.4375,
  50. Vat.lat.4379,
  51. Vat.lat.4389 (Upgraded to HQ),
  52. Vat.lat.4403,
  53. Vat.lat.4404,
  54. Vat.lat.4405,
  55. Vat.lat.4408
  56. Vat.lat.4420, eTK incipit: Non solum cum scripserunt rememoratores; 
  57. Vat.lat.4421,
  58. Vat.lat.4422, eTK incipit: Cum natura non minus indigeat aquis fisicalibus (14c); John of Parma
  59. Vat.lat.4428, Avicenna's Terra Pura and other works; eTK incipit: Corpora mineralia in quatuor dividuntur
  60. Vat.lat.4432, eTK incipits: Quia sentire quidem (early 14th century); De virtutibus naturalibus
  61. Vat.lat.4434, Jacobus de Forlivio, De intentione et remissione formarum, see Jordanus
  62. Vat.lat.4436,
  63. Vat.lat.4441,
  64. Vat.lat.4448, Antonius de Scarparia, 14th century Italian physician, on Galen's Ars Parva, with a diagram discussed by John Murdoch's Album of Science showing the continuum by latitudes from completely well (at top) to completely sick (below): 
  65. Vat.lat.4451 (Upgraded to HQ), medical etc, Thadeus of Florence and others, eTK incipit: Impossibile est eundem incipere et finire (14th century)
  66. Vat.lat.4454 (Upgraded to HQ), eTK incipit: Averroes in commento xv de animalibus sicut illa; See also Jordanus
  67. Vat.lat.4455 (Upgraded to HQ), Jordanus, Arithmetic. See Jordanus database. eTK incipit: Convenerunt in hoc antiqui; by Petrus Hispanus
  68. Vat.lat.4457,
  69. Vat.lat.4463,
  70. Vat.lat.4464, eTK incipit: Consuevit dubitari de titulo huius libri; by Dino del Garbo
  71. Vat.lat.4467, Abulcasis/Albucasis (above) — Digita Vaticana (@DigitaVaticana) December 18, 2018
    — (@EgoConstantinus)
  72. Vat.lat.4469,
  73. Vat.lat.4470,
  74. Vat.lat.4471,
  75. Vat.lat.4473,
  76. Vat.lat.4474,
  77. Vat.lat.4475 (Upgraded to HQ), eTK incipit: Sciendum est quod humores quidam sunt in capite (13c-14c); also: De limphis oculorum qui dicitur paralymenon
  78. Vat.lat.4477, eTK incipit: Cum omne corpus animatum; Glossulae aphorismorum Hippocratis
  79. Vat.lat.4478, eTK incipit: Celi enarrant gloriam dei triplici via aq modo mirabili celi; author Jean Ganivet
  80. Vat.lat.4483,
  81. Vat.lat.4485,
  82. Vat.lat.4487,
  83. Vat.lat.4490 (Upgraded to HQ),
  84. Vat.lat.4493 (Upgraded to HQ),
  85. Vat.lat.4494,
  86. Vat.lat.4495,
  87. Vat.lat.4496,
  88. Vat.lat.4498 (Upgraded to HQ), Frontinus, Seneca and other classical authors, see Jordanus
  89. Vat.lat.4502 (Upgraded to HQ),
  90. Vat.lat.4503,
  91. Vat.lat.4504,
  92. Vat.lat.4505,
  93. Vat.lat.4506,
  94. Vat.lat.4507,
  95. Vat.lat.4509,
  96. Vat.lat.4513,
  97. Vat.lat.4514 (Upgraded to HQ),
  98. Vat.lat.4515,
  99. Vat.lat.4518,
  100. Vat.lat.4522 (Upgraded to HQ),
  101. Vat.lat.4523,
  102. Vat.lat.4524,
  103. Vat.lat.4526,
  104. Vat.lat.4527,
  105. Vat.lat.4528,
  106. Vat.lat.4529,
  107. Vat.lat.4530, Jamblichus, see Jordanus
  108. Vat.lat.4535,
  109. Vat.lat.4538,
  110. Vat.lat.4539, Bernelinus, Gerbert and others on arithmetic, see Jordanus. With this bull's eye by the Dennis the Menace of the Vatican rubber stamp:
  111. Vat.lat.5754.pt.A,
  112. Vat.lat.9055,
  113. This is Piggin's Unofficial List number 190. Thanks to @gundormr for harvesting. If you have corrections or additions, please use the comments box below. Follow me on Twitter (@JBPiggin) for news of more additions to DigiVatLib.


Tiro's Secret

Tironian notes formed a medieval shorthand system which made life easier for the writers, and much harder for us modern readers. The script, said to have been devised by Cicero's secretary Tiro, is not a secret. You "only" have to learn it.

This week, the Vatican Library has kindly digitized a 10th-century ninth-century (thanks Martin Hellmann!) manual to get you started. Vat.lat.3799 seems to have been put together in Northern France, perhaps in St. Amand. As a foretaste, try copying Adam and Eve:

If you think that it would be quicker to write Eva longhand, you might be right.

Martin Hellmann, who created a Tironian online manual back in 2011, has made another stride for independent scholarship with a handy index of the medieval manuals which he brought online a few months ago at his Martinellus website.

In all, 61 manuscripts have just arrived online. My list:
  1. Borg.lat.260,
  2. Ott.lat.3380,
  3. Ott.lat.3381,
  4. Ross.28 (Upgraded to HQ),
  5. Ross.43,
  6. Ross.44,
  7. Ross.46,
  8. Ross.48,
  9. Ross.52,
  10. Ross.53,
  11. Ross.54,
  12. Ross.55,
  13. Ross.56,
  14. Ross.57,
  15. Ross.58,
  16. Ross.63,
  17. Ross.64,
  18. Ross.68,
  19. Ross.69,
  20. Ross.75,
  21. Ross.77,
  22. Ross.78,
  23. Ross.79,
  24. Ross.80,
  25. Ross.82,
  26. Ross.93,
  27. Ross.111 (Upgraded to HQ),
  28. Ross.121,
  29. Ross.122,
  30. Ross.123,
  31. Ross.124,
  32. Ross.152,
  33. Ross.155,
  34. Ross.159 (Upgraded to HQ),
  35. Ross.168,
  36. Ross.172,
  37. Ross.179,
  38. Ross.185,
  39. Ross.196,
  40. Ross.226 (Upgraded to HQ), a canon law commentary, Liber de vita christiana by Bonizo of Sutri, according to Hermann Schadt, who identifies the following bizarre drawing as a descent genealogy of Noah and his three sons:
  41. Ross.240,
  42. Ross.242,
  43. Vat.gr.2625 (Upgraded to HQ),
  44. Vat.lat.2466, medical translations of Hippocrates and Avicenna by Jacobus Forlivius. See the list in Jordanus
  45. Vat.lat.3799, manual of Tironian notes, 10th or 11th century (above)
  46. Vat.lat.4184,
  47. Vat.lat.4267,
  48. Vat.lat.4344,
  49. Vat.lat.4387,
  50. Vat.lat.4392,
  51. Vat.lat.4400,
  52. Vat.lat.4423,
  53. Vat.lat.4426, a 13th-century compilation of 11 texts from diverse authors, five of them natural philosophy texts listed in the eTK incipits 
  54. Vat.lat.4429, a compilation of 12 scientific works by Avicenna, Thomas Bradwardine, Aristotle and others. See the list in Jordanus
  55. Vat.lat.4431,
  56. Vat.lat.4440, 11 medical works including On Fevers: see eTK incipits 
  57. Vat.lat.4442,  
  58. Vat.lat.4465,
  59. Vat.lat.4479,
  60. Vat.lat.4508,
  61. Vat.lat.11829, Francesco Tonii, L'Ignoranza: a play, seemingly written under the patronage of Felice Rospigliosi to entertain Pope Clement IX
This is Piggin's Unofficial List number 189. Thanks to @gundormr for harvesting. If you have corrections or additions, please use the comments box below. Follow me on Twitter (@JBPiggin) for news of more additions to DigiVatLib.


Venn Diagram

One of the early appearances of what we nowadays call a Venn diagram is in the Ars musice, a tract on musical harmony by an anonymous medieval author once supposed to have been Thomas Aquinas.

A principal source of this diagram is a late 13th or early 14th-century scientific codex Vat.lat.4357 at the Vatican which has just been digitized. The tract starts with a magnificent wheel diagram of the varieties of church music:

Michael Bernhard proposed (PDF) in 2006 that it is a compilation mainly based on the De Musica of Johannes Cotto (Affligemensis), peppered with Macrobius, Boethius, Isidore, Berno, Hermannus Contractus and William of Hirsau. He has edited the text and diagrams. He identifies the author as one Augustinus minor.

The codex binds together smaller manuscripts, with the Ars at ff. 57-64. Check out the contents on MirabileWeb for more detail.

Here is the full list of 71 digitizations in the past week:
  1. Barb.or.23,
  2. Cerulli.pers.5,
  3. Cerulli.pers.170,
  4. Cerulli.pers.241,
  5. Cerulli.pers.356,
  6. Cerulli.pers.477,
  7. Cerulli.pers.503,
  8. Cerulli.pers.698,
  9. Cerulli.pers.711,
  10. Cerulli.pers.899,
  11. Cerulli.pers.971,
  12. Cerulli.pers.1054,
  13. Ross.23,
  14. Ross.45,
  15. Ross.62,
  16. Ross.65,
  17. Ross.66 (Upgraded to HQ), seems to be a book of hours, see tweet above

  18. Ross.120 (Upgraded to HQ), a book of hours (see tweet above) which raises the issue: do angels gossip while on duty?
  19. Ross.149 (Upgraded to HQ),
  20. Ross.150,
  21. Vat.lat.2471,
  22. Vat.lat.3193,
  23. Vat.lat.3416, with Orbis terrarum spatia breviter (1472), a work of Pier Candido Decembrio (from eTK) 
  24. Vat.lat.3739,
  25. Vat.lat.4097 (Upgraded to HQ),
  26. Vat.lat.4105 (Upgraded to HQ),
  27. Vat.lat.4113.pt.1,
  28. Vat.lat.4140,
  29. Vat.lat.4153,
  30. Vat.lat.4158,
  31. Vat.lat.4182,
  32. Vat.lat.4263,
  33. Vat.lat.4265 (Upgraded to HQ), see MirabileWeb
  34. Vat.lat.4266,
  35. Vat.lat.4268,
  36. Vat.lat.4270 (Upgraded to HQ),
  37. Vat.lat.4271,
  38. Vat.lat.4272 (Upgraded to HQ),
  39. Vat.lat.4282,
  40. Vat.lat.4285,
  41. Vat.lat.4287,
  42. Vat.lat.4289,
  43. Vat.lat.4290,
  44. Vat.lat.4292,
  45. Vat.lat.4299,
  46. Vat.lat.4308,
  47. Vat.lat.4309,
  48. Vat.lat.4322,
  49. Vat.lat.4323 (Upgraded to HQ), copy of above:
  50. Vat.lat.4348,
  51. Vat.lat.4350,
  52. Vat.lat.4355,
  53. Vat.lat.4357 (Upgraded to HQ), above, Ars Musice of Augustinus minor. The codex also contains the Breviloquium de virtutibus antiquorum principum et philosophorum of John of Wales, fl. 1257-1283, the Cosmographia of Bernardus Silvestris and De planctu naturae by Alan of Lille.
  54. Vat.lat.4359,
  55. Vat.lat.4365,
  56. Vat.lat.4367,
  57. Vat.lat.4370,
  58. Vat.lat.4374,
  59. Vat.lat.4376,
  60. Vat.lat.4377,
  61. Vat.lat.4380,
  62. Vat.lat.4382,
  63. Vat.lat.4383,
  64. Vat.lat.4386,
  65. Vat.lat.4390,
  66. Vat.lat.4393,
  67. Vat.lat.4395,
  68. Vat.lat.4401,
  69. Vat.lat.4409,
  70. Vat.lat.4788 (Upgraded to HQ),
  71. Vat.turc.211,
This is Piggin's Unofficial List number 188. Thanks to @gundormr for harvesting. If you have corrections or additions, please use the comments box below. Follow me on Twitter (@JBPiggin) for news of more additions to DigiVatLib.


Down Time in Goa

The Italian nobleman Pietro della Valle was one of the most remarkable of all Renaissance men: a composer, a linguist, an acute diarist, but also a warrior, a killer, a Romeo and an indomitable wangler of audiences with exotic monarchs.

On an extraordinary, multi-year tourist trip to the furthest lands (with a retinue), he picked up Persian.

In Goa, India, he whiled away some time in 1624 translating the book De tribus coelis of Christoforo Borri from Latin to Persian. What gentlemen do. It contains this diagram of Tycho Brache's compromise scheme for a cosmology: less Ptolemaic but not quite Copernican:

The sun revolves around the earth as it traditionally had, but the planets revolve around the sun. Also shown are the locations of several comets whose courses were calculated to cross the courses of two or more planets, according to Anthony Grafton's Rome Reborn catalog.

The codex, Vat.pers.10, has just been digitized in color by the Vatican Library after only being available in black and white. It is one of 40 items newly digitized this past week. Here is my full list:
  1. Barb.lat.4310,
  2. Barb.or.164,
  3. Ross.34 (Upgraded to HQ),
  4. Vat.gr.1032 (Upgraded to HQ),
  5. Vat.lat.3184,
  6. Vat.lat.3292,
  7. Vat.lat.3473,
  8. Vat.lat.4028,
  9. Vat.lat.4059,
  10. Vat.lat.4077,
  11. Vat.lat.4078,
  12. Vat.lat.4080, see eTK for incipits "Quoniam huic arti ysagogas prestituimus" and "Quantum huic arti".
  13. Vat.lat.4086, works of Roger Bacon, plus extract of Seneca: see Jordanus
  14. Vat.lat.4094,
  15. Vat.lat.4133,
  16. Vat.lat.4151,
  17. Vat.lat.4168,
  18. Vat.lat.4199,
  19. Vat.lat.4214,
  20. Vat.lat.4217 (Upgraded to HQ),
  21. Vat.lat.4225,
  22. Vat.lat.4242 (Upgraded to HQ),
  23. Vat.lat.4249 (Upgraded to HQ),
  24. Vat.lat.4254,
  25. Vat.lat.4258,
  26. Vat.lat.4269 (Upgraded to HQ),
  27. Vat.lat.4274 (Upgraded to HQ),
  28. Vat.lat.4281,
  29. Vat.lat.4284,
  30. Vat.lat.4288,
  31. Vat.lat.4291,
  32. Vat.lat.4296,
  33. Vat.lat.4304,
  34. Vat.lat.4313,
  35. Vat.lat.4345,
  36. Vat.lat.13320,
  37. Vat.pers.10 (Upgraded to HQ), above. Shown in Washington in Rome Reborn exhibition
  38. Vat.sir.11,
  39. Vat.sir.529,
  40. Vat.sir.560.pt.B (Upgraded to HQ), the more modern section of a famed codex which was donated to the papacy in 1937 by the Syrian-Orthodox Metropolitan of Mosul. The other part of that codex, dating to the 8th or 9th century, which is already online, contains a single folio, 27, with part of a celebrated late-antique collection of Roman law, the Sententiae Syriacae. 
This is Piggin's Unofficial List number 187. Thanks to @gundormr for harvesting. If you have corrections or additions, please use the comments box below. Follow me on Twitter (@JBPiggin) for news of more additions to DigiVatLib.